Number of medical institutions in Turkey". Archived from the original on 3 January After years of persecution e. Retrieved 23 March They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, resembling more illustrations rather than standalone works of art.


Most ethnic Circassians have fully assimilated into Turkish culture, making it difficult to trace, count, or even estimate their ethnic presence. According to some reports, there are about ,, Roma in Turkey. Languages of Turkey and Ethnic groups in Turkey.

Turkish shipyards have 15 floating docks of different sizes and one dry dock. The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy is the country's long-standing strategic alliance with the United States. The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurriansnon-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as ca, 99 turkey dating. Archived from the original PDF on 10 February Today, theatre acts are performed by numerous private theatre companies and subsidized companies such as the Turkish State Theatres. Prehistory of Anatolia and Prehistory of Southeastern Europe. Interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe contributed to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts. Archived from the original PDF on 21 March The population is relatively young with By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1, live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food. Archived from the original PDF on 5 May I am athletic, passionate, well-educated, caring, loving and sensitive Turkish peopleMinorities in Turkeyand Turkification. A Concise History of Greece. Retrieved 18 August From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Profile of the week. Library of the European Parliament. Civil Society, Religion, and the Nation: What do you seek somebody for? Classical Anatolia and Hellenistic period. Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion ; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. Retrieved 10 June The efforts of Midhat Pasha during the late Tanzimat era led the Ottoman constitutional movement ofwhich introduced the First Constitutional Erabut these efforts proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire. Turkish currency and debt crisis, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Designed by Greek architect Zeno, a native of the city, the Aspendos amphitheatre was built during the Roman period in — CE. Subsequently, Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, 99 turkey dating in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union. The Yogurt Man Cometh:

Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armeniathe Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq dating internet services Syria to the south. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, with the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the AssyriansGreeksThraciansPhrygiansUrartiansand Armenians.

The name of Turkey Turkish: The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. The modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, 99 turkey dating. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived 99 turkey dating Anatoliafrom at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurriansnon-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as ca.

The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were LydiaCaria and Lycia. The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynastywhich included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC.

The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in BC, [53] which led to increasing cultural homogeneity seho and nana dating Hellenization in the area.

Following Alexander's death in BC, Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdomsall of which became part of the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BC.

According to Acts of Apostles 11, [59] a city in the southern of Turkey, 99 turkey dating, Antioch now Antakya is the birthplace of the first Christian community. Following the death of Theodosius I in and the permanent division of the Roman 99 turkey dating between his two sons, the city, which would popularly come to be known as Constantinoplebecame the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.

This empire, which would later be branded by historians as the Byzantine Empireruled most of the territory of present-day Turkey until the Late Middle Ages ; [61] although the eastern regions remained in firm Sasanian hands up to the first half of the seventh century.

The frequent Byzantine-Sassanid Warsas part of the centuries long-lasting Roman-Persian Warsfought between the neighbouring rivalling Byzantines and Sasanians, took place in various parts of present-day Turkey and decided much of the latter's history from the fourth century up to the first half of the seventh century. In the latter half of the 11th 99 turkey dating, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into medieval Armenia and the eastern regions of Anatolia, 99 turkey dating.

Inthe Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikertstarting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek -speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish -speaking one was underway. The Mevlevi Order of dervisheswhich was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumiplayed a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized.

In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would evolve over the next years into the Ottoman Empire. Inthe Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capitalConstantinople. InSultan Selim I — successfully expanded the empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran.

Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Oceanwith a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean was perceived as a threat to the Ottoman monopoly over the ancient trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe. Despite the increasingly prominent European presence, the Ottoman Empire's trade with the east continued to flourish until the second half of the 18th century.

The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificentwho personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law.

The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In the east, the Ottomans were often at war with Safavid Persia over conflicts stemming from territorial disputes or religious differences between the 16th and 18th centuries.

From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also fought many wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. These were initially about Ottoman territorial expansion and consolidation in southeastern and eastern Europe; but starting from the latter half of the 18th centurythey became more about the survival of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun to lose its strategic territories on the northern Black Sea coast to the advancing Russians.

From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which had been instituted by Mahmud IIwere aimed to modernise the Ottoman state in line with the progress that had been made in Western Europe.

The efforts of Midhat Pasha during the late Tanzimat era led the Ottoman constitutional movement ofwhich introduced the First Constitutional Erabut these efforts proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire.

The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to a rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoplesleading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians. During the war, the empire's Armenians were deported to Syria as part of the Armenian Genocide.

As a result, an estimatedto 1, Armenians were killed. By 18 September the Greek, Armenian and French armies were expelled, [92] and the Ankara-based Turkish regimewhich had declared itself the legitimate government of the country on 23 Aprilstarted to formalise the legal transition from the old Ottoman into the new Republican political system.

On 1 Novemberthe Turkish Parliament in Ankara formally abolished the Sultanatethus ending years of monarchical Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October in Ankara, the country's new capital.

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of transforming the old religion-based and multi-communal Ottoman state system constitutional monarchy into an essentially Turkish nation state parliamentary republic with a secular constitution. In Turkey annexed the Republic of Hatay. Turkey remained neutral during most of World War IIbut entered the closing stages of the war on the side of the Allies on 23 February On 26 JuneBlithe spirits dating became a charter member of the United Nations.

In Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe. Following a decade of Cypriot intercommunal violence and the coup in Cyprus on 15 July staged by the EOKA B paramilitary organisation, which overthrew President Makarios and installed the pro- Enosis union with Greece Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July by unilaterally exercising Article IV in the Treaty of Guaranteebut without restoring the status quo ante at the end of the military operation.

However, negotiations for solving the Cyprus dispute are still ongoing between Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot political leaders. The Kurds demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey.

More than 40, people have died as a result of the conflict. Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. Inwidespread protests erupted in many Turkish provinces, sparked by a plan to demolish Gezi Park but soon growing into general anti-government dissent. Turkey has a unitary structure in terms of administration and this aspect is one of the most important factors shaping the Turkish public administration.

When three powers executive, legislative and judiciary are taken into account as the main functions of the state, local administrations have little power. Turkey doesn't have a federal system, and the provinces are subordinate to the central government in Ankara.

Local administrations silver surfer dating site established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the province governors vali and town governors kaymakam. Within this unitary framework, Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces il or vilayet for administrative purposes. The centralised structure of decision-making in Ankara is considered by some academicians as an impediment to good local governance, [] [] and occasionally causes resentment in the municipalities of urban centres that are inhabited largely by ethnic minority groups, such as the Kurds.

Between andTurkey was a parliamentary representative democracy. A presidential system was adopted by referendum in ; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in and gives the President complete control of the executiveincluding the power to issue decrees, appoint his own cabinet, draw up the budget, dissolve parliament by calling early elections, and pack the bureaucracy and the courts with political appointees.

Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralised state. Executive power is exercised by the President, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

The judiciary is nominally independent from the executive and the legislature, but the constitutional changes that came into effect with the referendums inand gave larger powers to the President and the ruling party for appointing or dismissing judges and prosecutors.

The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others. Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since and before most countries, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. There are members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatistor ban their existence altogether.

Human rights in Turkey have been the subject of some controversy and international condemnation. Between and the European Court of Human Rights made more than 1, judgements against Turkey for human rights violations, particularly regarding the right to life, and freedom from torture. Other issues, such as Kurdish rights, women's rights, LGBT rights, and press freedom, have also attracted controversy.

Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to future membership of the EU. According to the Committee to Protect Journaliststhe AKP government has waged one of the world's biggest crackdowns on media freedom.

Crowleysaid that the United States had "broad concerns about trends involving intimidation of journalists in Turkey. On 20 Maythe Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of immunity from prosecution, including deputies from the pro-Kurdish HDP and the main opposition CHP party. On 29 AprilTurkish authorities blocked online access to Wikipedia in all languages across Turkey.

An estimated 45 percent of Turks have circumvented the Internet blocks, at one time or another, by using a virtual private network VPN. Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. The Administrative Code bears similarities with its French counterpartand the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart. Turkey has adopted the principle of the separation of powers.

In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. The independence and organisation of the courts, the security of the tenure of judges and public prosecutors, the profession of judges and prosecutors, the supervision of judges and public prosecutors, the military courts and their organisation, and the powers and duties of the high courts are regulated by the Turkish Born again christian dating online. According to Article of the Turkish Constitution, the organisation, duties and jurisdiction of the courts, their functions and the trial procedures are regulated by law.

In line with the aforementioned article of the Turkish Free speed dating perth and related laws, the court system in Turkey can be classified under three main categories; which are the Judicial Courts, 99 turkey dating, Administrative Courts and Military Courts. Each category includes first instance courts and high courts. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system.

Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments such as the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command and agencies, all acting under the command of the Prime Minister of Turkey or mostly the Minister of Internal Affairs. According to figures released by the Justice Ministrythere arepeople in Turkish prisons as of Novembera doubling since In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy.

Turkey became one 99 turkey dating the first members of the Council of Europe inapplied for associate membership of the EEC predecessor of the European Union in and became an associate member in After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC inbecame an associate member of the Western European Union injoined the EU Customs Union in and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since Turkey's support for Northern Cyprus in the Cyprus dispute complicates Turkey's relations with the EU and remains a major stumbling block to the country's EU accession bid.

The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy is the country's long-standing strategic alliance with the United States. Subsequently, Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union.

The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union inwith which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia[] thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey.

The Baku—Tbilisi—Ceyhan pipeline forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit from the Caspian Sea basin to Europe. However, inTurkey sealed its land border with Armenia in a gesture of support to Azerbaijan a Turkic state in the Caucasus region during the Nagorno-Karabakh Warand it remains closed, 99 turkey dating.


Retrieved 19 February There are no official statistics of people's religious beliefs nor is it asked in the census. There were even those who wrote musicals. Retrieved 21 February Archived from the original on 12 July Inthe quota of admitted students was , compared to 1, who took the higher education exam in Archived from the original PDF on 10 February Steadman; Gregory McMahon 15 September Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 7 February The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences. Retrieved 4 August Undersecretariat for Defence Industries. University of Washington Press, 99 turkey dating. They inhabit all major towns and cities across Turkey, however. Can only send a certain number of virtual gifts Costs Free online dating: This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West. Turkish television dramas are increasingly becoming popular beyond Turkey's borders dating someone youve already dated are among the country's most vital exports, both in terms of profit and public relations. The real GDP growth rate from to averaged 6. The country's official language is Turkishwhich is spoken by